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Current Distribution of Quagga and Zebra Mussels in the United States

The U.S. Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species website maintains current online maps depicting the current distribution of quagga and zebra mussels in the United States. Click on the species below to access these maps.

Quagga Mussel Distribution Map
Zebra Mussel Distribution Map
Literature Cited on this Website

Boelman, S.F., F.M. Neilson, E.A. Dardeau, Jr., and T. Cross. 1997. Zebra mussel control handbook for facility operators, first edition. Miscellaneous Paper EL-97-1, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.

Bossenbroek, J.M., L.E. Burlakova, T.C. Crail, A.Y. Karatayev, R.A. Krebs, and D.T. Zanatta. 2018. Modeling habitat of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia:Unionidae) in the lower Great Lakes 25 years after the Dreissena invasion. Freshwater Science 2018 37:2, 330-342

Boyd, D. 2016. Mussel-related impacts and costs at LCDO facilities (Hoover, Davis, and Parker Dams). Final report ST 2016-1608.

Burlakova, L.E., B.L. Tulumello, A.Y. Karatayev, R.A. Krebs, D.W. Schloesser, W.L. Paterson, T.A. Griffith, M.W. Scott, T. Crail, and D.T. Zanatta. 2017. Competetive replacement of invasive congeners may relax impact on native species: interactions among zebra, quagga, and native unionid mussels. PLOS ONE 9(12): e114926.

Community Attributes. 2017. Economic impact of invasive species: Direct cost estimates and economic impacts for Washington State. 46pp.

Cuthbert, R.N., C. Giagne, E.J. Hudgins, A. Turbelin, D.A. Ahmed, C. Albert, T.W. Bodey, E. Briski, R. Essl, P.J. Haubrock, R.E. Gozlan, N. Kirichenko, M. Kourantidou, A.M. Kramer, and F. Courchamp. 2022. Biological invasion costs reveal insufficient proactive management worldwide. Science of the Total Environment. 819:1-12.

Daigne, C., B. Leroy, A. Vaissiere, R.E. Gozlan, D. Roiz, I. Jaric, J. Salles, C.J.A. Bradshaw, and F. Courchamp. 2021. High and rising economic costs of biological invasions worldwide. Nature 593:571-576.

DeBruyckere, L.A. 2019. Lake Tahoe Aquatic Invasive Species Action Agenda 2021-2030. 54 pages plus appendices.

Depew, D.C., E. Krutzelmann, K.E. Watchorn, A. Caskenette, and E.C. Enders. 2021. The distribution, density, and biomass of the zebra mussel on natural substrates in Lake Winnipeg 2017-2019. Journal of Great Lakes Research 47:556-566.

Higgins, S.N., and M.J. Vander Zanden. 2010. What a difference a species makes: a meta-analysis of dreissenid mussel impacts on freshwater ecosystems. Ecological Monographs 80(2):179-196.

Independent Economic Analysis Board. 2013. Economic risk of zebra and quagga mussels in the Columbia River Basin. Dcoument IEAB 2013-2, Task Number 201.

Jones, C.G., J.H. Lawton, and M. Shachak. 1994. Organisms as ecosystem engineers. OIKOS 69:373-386.

Karatayev, A. Y., L. E. Burlakova & D. K. Padilla, 1997. The effects of Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) invasion on aquatic communities ineastern Europe.Journal of Shellfish Research 16:187–203.

Karatayev, A. Y., L. E. Burlakova & D. K. Padilla, 2002. Impacts of zebra mussels on aquatic communities and their role as ecosystem engineers. In Leppakoski, E., S. Gollach & S. Olenin (eds), Invasive Aquatic Species of Europe: Distribution, Impacts and Management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordreicht.

Karatayev, A.Y., D.K. Padilla, and L. Burlakova. 2015. Zebra versus quagga mussels: a review of their spread, population dynamics, and ecosystem impacts. Hydrobiologia 746:97-112.

Kelley, D. W., L.-M. Herborg, and H. J. MacIsaak. 2010. Ecosystem changes associated with Dreissena invasions: recent developments and emerging issues. In van der Velde, G., S. Rajagopal & A. Bij de Vaate (eds), The Zebra Mussel in Europe. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden: 199–209.

Knoll, L.B., O. Sarnelle, S.K. Hamilton, C.E.H. Kissman, A.E. Wilson, J.B. Rose, and M.R. Morgan. 2008. Invasive zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha ) increase cyanobacterial toxin concentrations in low nutrient lakes. vol. 65, pp. 448-455. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science (2008). doi: 10.1139/f07-181

Lake County Watershed Protection District. 2019. Lake County Quagga and Zebra Mussel Prevention Plan. 96pp.

Mayer, C. M., L. E. Burlakova, P. Eklöv, D. Fitzgerald, A. Y. Karatayev, S. A. Ludsin, S. Millard, E. L. Mills, A. P. Ostapenya, L. G. Rudstam, B. Zhu, and T. V. Zhukova. 2014. The benthification of freshwater lakes: exotic mussels turning ecosystems upside down Pages 575-585 in T. F. Nalepa and D. W. Schloesser, editors. Quagga and zebra mussels: biology, impacts, and control, second edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL

Mills, E.L., J.M. Casselman, R. Dermott, J.D. Fitzsimons, G. Gal, K.T. Holeck, J.A. Hoyle, O.E. Johansson, B.F. Lantry, J.C. Makarewica, E.S. Millard, I.F. Munawar, M.R. Munawar, R. O'Gorman, R.W. Owens, L.G. Rudstam, T. Schaner, and T.J. Stewart. 2003. Lake Ontario: food web dynamics in a changing ecosystem (1970-2000). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60(4):361-369.

Nelson, N., Pete, S., Neher, C., Duffield, J., & Devlin, S. 2022. Tribal Perspectives on Preventing the Introduction of Zebra Mussels into Flathead Lake, Montana.

Olden, J. D., and Tamayo, M. 2014. Incentivizing the Public to Support Invasive Species Management: Eurasian Milfoil Reduces Lakefront Property Values. PLOS ONE 9(10):e110458–e110458.

Pimental, D., R. Zuniga, and D. Morrison. 2005. Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien-invasive species in the United States. Ecological Economics 52(3): 273-288.

Rumzie, N., R. Christopherson, S. O'Meara, Y. Passamaneck, A. Murphy, S. Pucherelli, and J. Trujillo. 2021. Costs associated with invasive mussels impacts and management. Science and Technology Program, Research and Development Office, Final Report No. ST-2021-8142-01.

Tahoe Regional Planning Agency. 2014. Lake Tahoe Region Aquatic Invasive Species Management Plan, California - Nevada. 35 pages plus appendices.

Strayer, D.L. 2009. Twenty years of zebra mussels: lessons from the mollusk that made headlines. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7(3):135-141.

Strayer, D.L., and H.M. Malcom. 2007. Shell decay rates of native and alien freshwater bivalves and implications for habitat engineering. Freshwater Biology 52:1611-1617.

Vissichelli, M. 2018. Invasive species impacts on federal infrastructure. Report for the National Invasive Species Council Secretariat. Deliverable for agreement # IAA4500109775. National Invasive Species Council Secretariat, Washington, DC.

Vyn, R.J. 2018. Updated expenditure estimates on invasive species in Ontario: 2018 survey results. 31pp.

Zhang, C., and K.J. Boyle. 2010. The effect of an aquatic invasive species (Eurasian watermilfoil) on lakefront property values. Ecological Economics 70(2):394–404. 

Zhu, B., D.G. Fitzgerald, C.M. Mayer, L.G. Rudstam, and E.L. Mills. 2006. Alteration of ecosystem function by zebra mussels in Oneida Lake: impacts on submerged macrophytes. Ecosystems 9:1017-1028.

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